Changes In North-South Irish Relations and The Determination of Borders in The Early 1920s

Authors

  • Jingtian Yang

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.54097/kqq1bk56

Keywords:

The Irish Free State; Northern Ireland; international relations.

Abstract

After the promulgation of the Government of Ireland Act 1920, the island of Ireland entered a de facto north-south division phase, and the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty in 1921 marked the establishment of an Irish Free State centred in Dublin. In the early days, the Free State adopted a peace policy towards Northern Ireland, hoping that the national forces of Northern Ireland would join the Free State peacefully and achieve reunification; With the intensification of political contradictions and internal differences, the Free State turned to be tough on Northern Ireland and even made a military offensive plan. However, affected by the outbreak of civil war, the British intervention, and other events, the Free State was finally forced to return to the Anglo-Irish Treaty to delimit the north-south border. The separation of Northern Ireland was eventually recognized by the Free State.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Parliament of the United Kingdom. An Act to provide for the better Government of Ireland. London, 23 December 1920, 10 & 11 Geo. 5. c. 67, https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/Geo5/10-11/67/introduction/enacted.

Robert Kee, Ireland: A History, translated by Xingming Pan, Shanghai: Dongfang chuban zhongxin, 2019.

Rankin, K. J. The provenance and dissolution of the Irish boundary commission. Institute for British-Irish Studies, University College Dublin, 2006.

Irish Boundary Commission. Report of the Irish Boundary Commission 1925, Irish University Press, Dublin, 1970.

Final text of the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty between Great Britain and Ireland as signed. London, 6 December 1921, No. 214 DE 2/304/1, https://www.difp.ie/books/?volume=1&docid=214.

The Collins - Craig agreement. London, 23 January 1922, No. 226 NAI DT S1801A, https://www.difp.ie/books/?volume=1&docid=226.

Extract from the minutes of a meeting of the provisional government. Dublin, 8 p.m., 30 January 1922, No. 231 NAI Provisional Government Minutes G1/1, https://www.difp.ie/books/?volume=1&docid=231; Extract from the minutes of a meeting of the provisional government. Dublin, 1 February 1922, No. 233 NAI Provisional Government Minutes G1/1, https://www.difp.ie/books/?volume=1&docid=233.

Press statement by Arthur Griffith on Northern Ireland policy. Dublin, 3 February 1922, No. 236 NAI DT S1801, https://www.difp.ie/books/?volume=1&docid=236.

Extract from statement by Michael Collins on Northern Ireland policy. Dublin, 4 February 1922, No. 240 NAI DT S1801A, https://www.difp.ie/books/?volume=1&docid=240.

Patrick Concannon Michael Collins, Northern Ireland and the Northern Offensive, May 1922. Irish History, 12 August 2019, https://www.theirishstory.com/2019/08/12/michael-collins-northern-ireland-and-the-northern-offensive-may-1922/.

Statement by Michael Collins on relations with Northern Ireland, Dublin, 27 March 1922, No. 256 NAI DT S1801A, https://www.difp.ie/books/?volume=1&docid=256.

Michael Collins to James Craig (Belfast), Dublin, 27 April 1922, No. 278 NAI DT S1801A, https://www.difp.ie/books/?volume=1&docid=278.

Matthew Lewis, Irish Historical Studies, The Fourth Northern Division and the Joint IRA Offensive, April- July 1922. War In History. Volume 21, p314.

Memorandum by Ernest Blythe on policy relating to Northern Ireland and covering letter, Dublin, 9 August 1922, No. 314 UCDA P24/70, https://www.difp.ie/books/?volume=1&docid=314.

Memorandum by Kevin O’Shiel on the organisation of the Northeastern Boundary Bureau. DUBLIN, 14 October 1922, No. 2 NAI DT S4743, https://www.difp.ie/books/?volume=2&docid=338.

Downloads

Published

01-04-2024

How to Cite

Yang, J. (2024). Changes In North-South Irish Relations and The Determination of Borders in The Early 1920s. Journal of Education, Humanities and Social Sciences, 28, 265-270. https://doi.org/10.54097/kqq1bk56