Numerical Simulation-Based Study on the Microstructure of TC4 Titanium Alloy in CMT Additive Manufacturing


  • Jiaxing Guo



TC4 titanium alloy; microstructure evolution; numerical simulation.


This thesis explores the thermal and mechanical phenomena occurring during the Cold Metal Transfer (CMT) additive manufacturing process of TC4 titanium alloy. The investigation delves into the effects of layer-by-layer deposition on the thermal cycles, stress distribution, and microstructural evolution of the additive manufactured specimens. Key findings include the identification of thermal accumulation with increasing deposition layers, leading to a decrease in cooling rates and a slight increase in the peak molten pool temperatures. The temperature profiles on the substrate exhibit cyclic patterns of peaks and troughs, which become smoother and exhibit less variance between maximum and minimum temperatures as deposition progresses. Stress analysis reveals that equivalent stress within the deposited layers decreases with the number of layers. This is attributed to the thermal stress accumulation and stress cycles induced by multiple thermal cycles, which initially increase the equivalent stress. However, a reduction in cooling rates over time and the effects of remelting facilitate the release of interlayer stress, resulting in minimal residual stress within the cooled specimens. Microstructurally, the TC4 titanium alloy specimens are characterized by the presence of primary β phase spanning across multiple deposition layers, growing in the direction of additive manufacturing. The accumulated heat input from increased layering enhances the growth of the primary β phase.The specimens' microstructure features a basketweave pattern comprised of α' martensite, α, and β phases, with α' martensite directly transformed from the primary β phase. Repeated heating cycles foster diverse pathways for the secondary α phase's formation, leading to more pronounced, directionally parallel α phases and extensive basketweave structures within the specimen layers. Higher temperature gradients at specimen edges encourage the formation of needle-like α' martensite. This thesis contributes to the understanding of the thermal behavior, stress dynamics, and microstructural characteristics in TC4 titanium alloy during CMT additive manufacturing, highlighting the interplay between process parameters, thermal management, and material response.


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How to Cite

Numerical Simulation-Based Study on the Microstructure of TC4 Titanium Alloy in CMT Additive Manufacturing. (2024). Academic Journal of Science and Technology, 10(1), 335-342.

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