The Current State of Research on Driving Anger


  • Xiaoting Zhan
  • Qian Zhang



Driving Anger, Research Methods, Influencing Factors, Intervention Measures


Driving anger is a significant factor in causing traffic accidents and poses a severe threat to road safety. This paper reviews the research progress on driving anger over the past decade, including its definition, research methodologies, influencing factors, and intervention measures. The literature indicates that (1) questionnaires, driving simulators, video recordings, and behavioral diaries are commonly used research methods. (2) The factors influencing driving anger include demographic elements (such as age, gender, alcohol consumption), personality traits (such as anger trait, sensation seeking), and environmental factors (such as road characteristics, life events). (3) To address driving anger, researchers have proposed various intervention measures, including relaxation training, group cognitive behavioral therapy, mindfulness training, and driver re-education programs. These interventions have been somewhat effective in reducing driving anger and aggressive driving behaviors. Future research could further explore the cognitive processes of driving anger and its impact on driving behavior to develop more effective intervention strategies, thereby enhancing road traffic safety.


af Wåhlberg, A. E. (2010). Re-education of young driving offenders; Effects on self-reports of driver behavior. Journal of safety research, 41(4), 331-338.

Bachoo, S., Bhagwanjee, A., & Govender, K. (2013). The influence of anger, impulsivity, sensation seeking and driver attitudes on risky driving behaviour among post-graduate university students in Durban, South Africa. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 55, 67-76.

Cœugnet, S., Miller, H., Anceaux, F., & Naveteur, J. (2013). How do time pressured drivers estimate speed and time? Accident Analysis & Prevention, 55, 211-218.

Dahlen, E. R., Martin, R. C., Ragan, K., & Kuhlman, M. M. (2005). Driving anger, sensation seeking, impulsiveness, and boredom proneness in the prediction of unsafe driving. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 37(2), 341-348.

Dahlen, E. R., & White, R. P. (2006). The Big Five factors, sensation seeking, and driving anger in the prediction of unsafe driving. Personality and Individual Differences, 41(5), 903-915.

Deffenbacher, J. L. (2008). Anger, Aggression, and Risky Behavior on the Road: A Preliminary Study of Urban and Rural Differences1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38(1), 22-36.

Deffenbacher, J. L., Filetti, L. B., Lynch, R. S., Dahlen, E. R., & Oetting, E. R. (2002). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of high anger drivers. Behaviour research and therapy, 40(8), 895-910.

Deffenbacher, J. L., GETTING, E. R., & Lynch, R. S. (1994). Development of a driving anger scale. Psychological reports, 74(1), 83-91.

Deffenbacher, J. L., Kemper, C. C., & Richards, T. L. (2007). The driving anger expression inventory: A validity study with community college student drivers. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 29(4), 220-230.

Deffenbacher, J. L., Lynch, R. S., Oetting, E. R., & Swaim, R. C. (2002). The Driving Anger Expression Inventory: a measure of how people express their anger on the road. Behaviour research and therapy, 40(6), 717-737.

Deffenbacher, J. L., Petrilli, R. T., Lynch, R. S., Oetting, E. R., & Swaim, R. C. (2003). The Driver's Angry Thoughts Questionnaire: A measure of angry cognitions when driving. Cognitive therapy and research, 27(4), 383-402.

Eşiyok, B., Yasak, Y., & Korkusuz, I. (2007). Anger expression on the road: validity and reliability of the driving anger expression inventory. Turk Psikiyatri Derg, 18(3), 231-243.

Falco, A., Piccirelli, A., Girardi, D., Dal Corso, L., & De Carlo, N. A. (2013). Risky riding behavior on two wheels: The role of cognitive, social, and personality variables among young adolescents. Journal of safety research, 46, 47-57.

Fengzhi, L., Changji, L., & Chenglie, L. (2003). The Reliability and Validity of Aggressive Driving Questionnaires in Chinese Version. Chinese Journal of Behavioral Medical Science, 12(3), 335-337.

Frank, R. G., Bouman, D. E., Cain, K., & Watts, C. (1992). Primary prevention of catastrophic injury. American Psychologist, 47(8), 1045.

Herrero-Fernández, D. (2011). Psychometric adaptation of the Driving Anger Expression Inventory in a Spanish sample: Differences by age and gender. Transportation research part F: traffic psychology and behaviour, 14(4), 324-329.

Herrero-Fernández, D. (2013). Do people change behind the wheel? A comparison of anger and aggression on and off the road. Transportation research part F: traffic psychology and behaviour, 21, 66-74.

Hoggan, B. L., & Dollard, M. F. (2007). Effort–reward imbalance at work and driving anger in an Australian community sample: Is there a link between work stress and road rage? Accident Analysis & Prevention, 39(6), 1286-1295.

Ismail, R., Ibrahim, N., Rad, A. Z., & Borhanuddin, B. (2009). Angry thoughts and aggressive behavior among Malaysian driver: A preliminary study to test model of accident involvement. European Journal of Social Sciences, 10(2), 273-281.

Iversen, H., & Rundmo, T. (2002). Personality, risky driving and accident involvement among Norwegian drivers. Personality and Individual Differences, 33(8), 1251-1263.

Jovanović, D., Lipovac, K., Stanojević, P., & Stanojević, D. (2011). The effects of personality traits on driving-related anger and aggressive behaviour in traffic among Serbian drivers. Transportation research part F: traffic psychology and behaviour, 14(1), 43-53.

Kazemeini, T., Ghanbari-e-Hashem-Abadi, B., & Safarzadeh, A. (2013). Mindfulness Based Cognitive Group Therapy vs Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy as a Treatment for Driving Anger and Aggression in Iranian Taxi Drivers. Psychology (2152-7180), 4(8).

Lajunen, T., Parker, D., & Stradling, S. G. (1998). Dimensions of driver anger, aggressive and highway code violations and their mediation by safety orientation in UK drivers. Transportation research part F: traffic psychology and behaviour, 1(2), 107-121.

Lonczak, H. S., Neighbors, C., & Donovan, D. M. (2007). Predicting risky and angry driving as a function of gender. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 39(3), 536-545.

McLinton, S. S., & Dollard, M. F. (2010). Work stress and driving anger in Japan. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 42(1), 174-181.

Moore, M., & Dahlen, E. R. (2008). Forgiveness and consideration of future consequences in aggressive driving. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 40(5), 1661-1666.

Nesbit, S. M., & Conger, J. C. (2011). Evaluation of cognitive responses to anger-provoking driving situations using the Articulated Thoughts during Simulated Situations procedure. Transportation research part F: traffic psychology and behaviour, 14(1), 54-65.

O'Brien, S. R., Tay, R. S., & Watson, B. C. (2002). An exploration of Australian driving anger.

Oltedal, S., & Rundmo, T. (2006). The effects of personality and gender on risky driving behaviour and accident involvement. Safety Science, 44(7), 621-628.

Philippe, F. L., Vallerand, R. J., Richer, I., Vallières, É., & Bergeron, J. (2009). Passion for driving and aggressive driving behavior: A look at their relationship. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39(12), 3020-3043.

Roidl, E., Siebert, F. W., Oehl, M., & Höger, R. (2013). Introducing a multivariate model for predicting driving performance: The role of driving anger and personal characteristics. Journal of safety research, 47, 47-56.

Sârbescu, P. (2012). Aggressive driving in Romania: psychometric properties of the driving anger expression inventory. Transportation research part F: traffic psychology and behaviour, 15(5), 556-564.

Sârbescu, P., Costea, I., & Rusu, S. (2012). Using the alternative Five Factor Personality Model to explain driving anger expression. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 33, 273-277.

Schwebel, D. C., Severson, J., Ball, K. K., & Rizzo, M. (2006). Individual difference factors in risky driving: The roles of anger/hostility, conscientiousness, and sensation-seeking. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 38(4), 801-810.

Stephens, A. N., & Groeger, J. A. (2009). Situational specificity of trait influences on drivers’ evaluations and driving behaviour. Transportation research part F: traffic psychology and behaviour, 12(1), 29-39.

Stephens, A. N., & Groeger, J. A. (2011). Anger-congruent behaviour transfers across driving situations. Cognition & emotion, 25(8), 1423-1438.

Stephens, A. N., Trawley, S. L., Madigan, R., & Groeger, J. A. (2013). Drivers Display Anger‐Congruent Attention to Potential Traffic Hazards. Applied cognitive psychology, 27(2), 178-189.

Strom, T., Leskela, J., Possis, E., Thuras, P., Leuty, M. E., Doane, B. M.,. Rosenzweig, L. (2013). Cognitive–Behavioral Group Treatment for Driving‐Related Anger, Aggression, and Risky Driving in Combat Veterans: A Pilot Study. Journal of traumatic stress, 26(3), 405-408.

Suhr, K. A., & Nesbit, S. M. (2013). Dwelling on ‘Road Rage’: The effects of trait rumination on aggressive driving. Transportation research part F: traffic psychology and behaviour, 21, 207-218.

Sullman, M. J. (2006). Anger amongst New Zealand drivers. Transportation research part F: traffic psychology and behaviour, 9(3), 173-184.

Sullman, M. J., Gras, M. E., Cunill, M., Planes, M., & Font-Mayolas, S. (2007). Driving anger in Spain. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(4), 701-713.

Underwood, G., Chapman, P., Wright, S., & Crundall, D. (1999). Anger while driving. Transportation research part F: traffic psychology and behaviour, 2(1), 55-68.

Villieux, A., & Delhomme, P. (2010). Driving anger and its expressions: Further evidence of validity and reliability for the Driving Anger Expression Inventory French adaptation. Journal of safety research, 41(5), 417-422.

Yasak, Y., & Esiyok, B. (2009). Anger amongst Turkish drivers: Driving Anger Scale and its adapted, long and short version. Safety Science, 47(1), 138-144.







How to Cite

Zhan, X., & Zhang, Q. (2024). The Current State of Research on Driving Anger. Journal of Innovation and Development, 7(2), 25-31.